What is DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)? What does DNA do?

What is DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)? What does DNA do?


What is DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)? What does DNA do?

Deoxyribo nucleic acid, or DNA for short, is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic instructions necessary for the viability functions and biological development of all organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA is the long-term storage of information. DNA is likened to a pattern, template, or recipe because it contains the information needed to build other components of the cell, such as Protein and RNA.

DNA fragments containing this genetic information are called genes. But other DNA sequences have structural functions (such as determining the shape of chromosomes). Others, on the other hand, help regulate how this genetic information will be used (in which cells, under what conditions).

What is DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)? What does DNA do?

What is DNA chemically? What does it do?

Chemically, DNA consists of two long polymers consisting of simple units called nucleotides. The backbone of these polymers consists of sugar and phosphate groups connected by ester bonds.

These two threads extend in the opposite direction to each other. Each sugar group is bound by one of four types of molecules called bases. The sequence formed by these bases along the backbone of DNA encodes genetic information. During Protein synthesis, this information determines the amino acids of proteins when read through the genetic code. During this process, information in DNA is copied to RNA, another nucleic acid with a structure similar to DNA. This process is called transcription.

DNA structure within the cell

In cells, DNA is located inside structures called chromosomes. Before cell division, chromosomes are mapped, during which DNA dualization occurs.

Eukaryotic organisms (i.e. animals, plants, fungi and Protistas) have their DNA inside the cell nucleus.

In prokaryotic living things (i.e. bacteria and archaea),DNA is involved in the cell cytoplasm.

Chromatin proteins (such as histones) found in chromosomes compress and organize DNA. These congested structures regulate the interactions between DNA and other proteins, controlling which parts of DNA to read.

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